are

most


dense


within

aquatic


vegetation

since


they


naturally


school,


but


also


prefer

small


weed


filled

water
bodies

with


muck,


gravel,


or


sand

bottoms.


Perch

are


commonly

active

during


the


day

and

inactive


at


night
except

during


spawning


when


they


are


active

both


day

and

night.
Life

History


-


Yellow


perch


spawn


once

a

year


in


spring


using


large


schools


and

shallow


areas


of


a

lake


or
low

current


tributary

streams.


They


do

not


build

a

redd


or


nest.


Spawning


typically

takes


place


at


night


or


in
the

early

morning.


Females


have

the


potential


to


spawn


up

to


eight


times


in


their


lifetime.


Two


to


five

males

go
to

the


spawning


grounds

first


and

are


with


the


female


throughout


the


spawning


process.


The


female


deposits
her

egg

mass,


and

then


at


least


two

males

release


their


milt

over


the


eggs

with


the


total


process


taking

about
five
seconds.


The


males

stay


with


the


eggs

for


a

short


time,


but


the


females


leave


immediately.


There

is


no
parental

care


provided


for


the


eggs

or


fry.
The

average

clutch

size


is


23,000

eggs,


but


can

range

from

2,000


to


90,000.


The


egg

mass


is


a

jelly

-

like
mass

that


is


semi

-

buoyant

and

can

reach


up

to


two

meters

long.


The


egg

mass


attaches


to


some


vegetation
while

the


rest


flows


with


the


water


current.


Other


substrate

includes

sand,


gravel,


rubble


and

submerged


trees
and
brush


in


wetland


habitat.


Yellow


perch


eggs

are


thought


to


contain


a

chemical


in


the


jelly

-

like


sheath


that
protects
the


eggs

and

makes


them

undesirable

since


they


are


rarely


ever


eaten


by

other


fish.


The


eggs
usually
hatch


in


eight


to


ten


days,


but


can

take


up

to


21

days

depending

upon


temperature


and

proper
spawning

habitat.


Spawning


occurs


in


the


spring


when


water


temperatures


are


between


6.7°C


and

12.8°C.
Growth

of


fry

is


initiated


at


6°C-

10°C,


but


is


inactive


below

5.3°C.


Larval


yellow


perch


survival


is


based


on

a
variety

of


factors


such

as

wind

speed,


turbidity,


food


availability,


and

food


composition.
Sexual

dimorphisms

-


is


known


to


occur


in


the


northern


waters


where


females


are


often


larger,


grow

faster,
live

longer,

and

mature

in


three


to


four


years.


Males

mature

in


two

to


three


years


at


a

smaller


size.
In

2000,


the


parasite

Heterosporis

spp.


was


discovered


in


yellow


perch


in


Wisconsin,


and

has

since


been
found

in


Minnesota,


Michigan,


and

Ontario.

The


parasite

doesn't


infect


people,


but


can

infect


many


important
sport

and

forage


fish

including


the


yellow


perch.
Bluegill
The

Bluegill


''Lepomis


macrochirus''


is


a
species

of


freshwater


fish

sometimes


referred
to

as

common


bream,


brim,


or


copper

nose.


It
is

a

member


of


the


sunfish

family
Centrarchida

of


the


order


Perciformes


and
somewhat
of


a

favorite


for


raising


in
Aquaponics.
Range
and


distribution

-


The


Bluegill


or
Bluegulli

occurs


naturally


in


the


United


States
east

of


the


Rocky


Mountains

from

coastal