Commercial

shrimp


farming


began


in


the


1970s,


and

production

grew

steeply

thereafter.

Global


production
reached
more


than


1.6


million


tons


in


2003,


worth


about


9

billion

U.S.


dollars.


Freshwater


prawn


farming
shares

many


characteristics


with,

including


many


problems

with


marine

shrimp


farming.


Unique

problems

are
introduced
by

the


developmental


life


cycle


of


the


main

species,


the


giant


river


prawn.


The


global


annual
production
of


freshwater


prawns


(excluding

crayfish


and

crabs)


in


2003


was


about


280,000tonsof


which

China
produced
180,000

tons


followed

by

India

and

Thailand


with


35,000

tons


each.


Additionally,


China

produced
about

370,000

tons


of


Chinese

river


crab.
Mollusks
Abalone
farming


began


in


the


late

1950s


and

early

1960s


in


Japan


and

China.


Since


the


mid-

1990s,


this
industry

has

become

increasingly


successful.


Over

-

fishing


and

poaching

have

reduced

wild


populations

to


the
extent

that


farmed

abalone

now


supplies

most


abalone

meat.



And


now

on

to


the


Meat


of


the


Matter…
The

Technologies


of

Aquaponics
Aquaponics
What

is


Aquaponics

?

Aquaponics


is


a

closed


sustainable

food


production

system

that


combines


a

traditional
aquaculture

system

used

in


growing


Aquatic


Animals

such

as

Tilapia,


Hybrid


Stripped


Bass


catfish


etc,


Red
Claw
Crayfish,


Giant


River


Prawns


and

many


other


aquatic


animals


in


tanks


or


ponds


that


can

be

consumed
by
humans

or


as

pets


such

as

KOI


&

Gold

Fish


for


example


and

the


use

of


a

hydroponics


system

cultivating
plants
in


water


in


a

symbiotic

environment.
Aquaponic

systems

are


considered


closed
because

no

water


is


expelled


from

the


system

into
the

aquifer

as

is


normal

in


hydroponic


operations
and
the


only


additional


water


used

is


added


to


the
system
to


make


up

for


evaporation.


This


makes
Aquaponics

very


plausible


for


use

in


arid

regions
where

water


is


scarce


to


almost


non-

existent


and
normal
farming


is


impossible.
On

the


aquaculture


side


of


the


equation,

effluents
(ammonia

and

excrements)


from

the


fish
accumulate
in


the


water


increasing

its

toxicity
which
unchecked


can

be

deadly


for


the


fish.


To